Lactic acid is a type of acid that can be used in winemaking to adjust the acidity of the wine and promote specific flavors and aromas. Lactic acid is typically added during the secondary fermentation process, which occurs after the primary fermentation is complete.
In winemaking, lactic acid is often produced naturally by the malolactic fermentation process, which occurs when certain bacteria convert malic acid (a harsher type of acid) into lactic acid (a smoother, less harsh type of acid). However, winemakers can also choose to add lactic acid directly to the wine to achieve the desired acidity level and flavor profile.
One of the benefits of adding lactic acid to wine is that it can help to reduce the harshness or acidity of the wine, resulting in a smoother, more balanced flavor. Lactic acid can also contribute specific flavors and aromas, such as buttery or creamy notes, that can be desirable in certain types of wine, such as Chardonnay.